Category Archives: Western Philosophy

‘Only I exists’, ‘I am at the center of this world’, ‘My consciousness’, ‘self-centered’, ‘selfish’, ‘I am alone’. All this describes the word solipsism. Solipsism is the idea which revolves around the word ‘I’.  Many philosophers have tried to describe the idea of solipsism and connect it with subjective experiences. I guess solipsism is a part of everyone’s life. Therefore, defining it in a way that would give meaning to life and preserve our self would sound great. The knowledge of self or introspection is believed to be the best technique to understand the self and its capacities. It can help to manage ourself to fit in this world. It should be noted that the knowledge of the external world could be known by self-consciousness. Now, it’s important to know the terms which explain consciousness. They are- inner, private, subjective, mental, sensations, moods, memories, thoughts, and emotions. By understanding all…

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Before we understand skepticism, we must know dogmatism which is just the opposite of the skeptical theories. Dogmatism is the belief which claims that no theories could be doubted or disputed. Any judgements is considered as a final, when it is announced by a trustworthy person. Drawbacks of dogmatic views The dogmatic views is giving a lots of troubles to the free thinking individuals. The opinions of the free thinkers are often neglected on the basis that it is wrong and novice.  The dogmatic views claims that they are cent percent true in their opinions and their opinions could not be rejected in any ways. This kind of beliefs is dangerous for the society. The society is getting moulded in the same dogmatic form and are not allowed to grow in a different & unique way. Society problems identified The  problems faced by the society are- inter-caste marriages, same-sex marriages,…

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Suppose you have to choose the best between the two concepts of reason & passion. What will you do? People trust the reason to make a decision. And passion always drives you closer to your goals. There is confusion in choosing the best between the two. To understand the concepts in a better way, we have to understand the theory of Hume. Who is Hume? David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, essayist, novelist, historian, and an economist who is best known today for his worldwide popular theory in scepticism, empiricism and naturalism. Hume – “Reason is the slave of passion” Hume believes that reason has no role to play in making moral judgements. Judgements are taken in a spur of moments. A sudden impetus which guarantees us that the things would go fine. According to Hume moral theory, “Reason is nothing but a wonderful and unintelligible instinct in our souls”.…

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It’s a way too difficult to define animal rights as compared to human rights. The reason is we can feel the different treatments or procedures, if any, inflicted on humans. We could realize any pains of humans as our own. We fear that we may pass through the same pain one day. Our fear gives us a voice to shout in the union for human rights before it turns late. Are we suffering alone? In safeguarding us from unwanted sufferings, we don’t realize somewhere on this planet other beings are also suffering. The moral philosophers define animal rights in a way that makes people understand that all beings are equal and deserve equal treatments. If humans have their rights, then why not animals? It is believed that every living being has consciousness but the degree may differ. This idea is enough to drive the law-makers to bring some decent rights…

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Being signifies existence. The literal meaning of Being is ‘to be’ or ‘to exist’. What is this existence for? Why DO WE EXIST? To clear this concept in a better way, it is very important to define the nature of being or its concerning reality. Problem of Being There are so many questions arising on the nature of being or reality which many ancient philosophers have tried to answer from time to time. The basic questions are- ‘what is being?’ ‘What we should consider being or reality as?’ ‘What if reality doesn’t persist?’ ‘How can we define reality as?’ ‘What is the complete nature of reality?’ ‘What is considered as permanent and temporary?’ ‘How the concept of ‘being’ makes relevance in our life?’ The philosophers of the ancient period have tried to find out the answers to the above-mentioned questions using various ways. The deep intellectual thoughts and the reference…

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Being signifies existence. The literal meaning of Being is ‘to be’ or ‘to exist’. What is this existence for? Why DO WE EXIST? To clear this concept in a better way, it is very important to define the nature of being or its concerning reality. Problem of Being There are so many questions arising on the nature of being or reality which many ancient philosophers have tried to answer from time to time. The basic questions are- ‘what is being?’ ‘What we should consider being or reality as?’ ‘What if reality doesn’t persist?’ ‘How can we define reality as?’ ‘What is the complete nature of reality?’ ‘What is considered as permanent and temporary?’ ‘How the concept of ‘being’ makes relevance in our life?’ The philosophers of the ancient period have tried to find out the answers to the above-mentioned questions using various ways. The deep intellectual thoughts and the reference…

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Gilbert Ryle has produced one interesting theory in his book “Concept of Mind” (1949). It has cleared the important misconceptions that the philosophers believe to have followed. No doubt, his work has brought a tremendous change in the style of thinking that people adopt. Cartesian Dualism It is the most popular theory given by Descartes. It popularizes the view that ‘mind’ and ‘body’ are two different substances. Therefore, the body is made up of material elements and the mind is made up of mental elements. While material elements are easily provable through various methods of experimentation and observation. The mental elements are most likely to fail in providing accurate proof. Descartes ‘cogito ergo sum’ means I think therefore I am’. This means the mental elements influences the physical elements and physical elements influence the mental elements. The problem of mind-body was resolved somehow by providing clear definitions of both this…

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American philosopher John Dewey (1897), in “My Pedagogic Creed,” concludes with these words: “I believe, finally, that the teacher is engaged, not simply in the training of individuals, but in the formation of the proper social life. I believe that every teacher should realize the dignity of his calling; that he is a social servant set apart for the maintenance of proper social order and the securing of the right social growth. I believe that in this way the teacher always is the prophet of the true God and the usherer in of the true kingdom of God. (p. 95)” The teacher is a prophet, a social servant; apart from teaching and following her duties, she must be an expert in managing and ordering the social life of an individual. According to Dewey, a man is never known by the recognition he has collected in his lives but by the…

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What is Logical Positivism? It is a theory discovered by the members of the Vienna circle. It is an outlook that the philosophical problems would be considered as true and meaningful only if it could be analysed properly. The discovery of logic in philosophy by philosophers like Russell and Quine has widened the advantage & scope of philosophy. It shifted the subject philosophy from traditional orthodox definitions to Modern Logical Positivism. “Vienna circle” It is a group of major philosophers- Moritz Schlick, Philipp Frank, Rudolf Carnap, Victor kraftand and others. They considered positivism as an evolution of philosophy. Their main intention was to look back at all major philosophical problems and make a logical analysis to it. The problem which couldn’t be analysed logically is skipped to be treated as a Valid philosophical Problems. Positivism could be said as switching of philosophy as a theoretical subject to science. The positivism…

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